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Organisation and uniforms of the Sardinian Army in the Italian first indipendence war.


The Sardinian army begun the 1848 campaign organized in 18 regiments of infantry and 2 regiments of guards. Each regiment  was formed by 4 battalions, each one of 4 companies. The force of each company was of 250 men. The I and II btns were formed by three coys of fusiliers and one of grenadiers; the III btn was formed by four coys of cacciatore (sharpshooters), while the IV btn, that was the deposit and was formed only with the mobilitation, was formed by four coys of fusiliers. As already said, the IV btn didn’t serve directly on the field, bur served in the the various garrisons and to replenish the losses of the others btns.  The two regiment of the guard were formed by two btns of grenadiers and one of cacciatore, each one always of four company. Integrated in the infantry, were the five regiments of bersaglieri whose coys (always four for btn) were assigned as support to the various divisions.

Uniforms

Line infantry


The line infantry wore dark blue coat and trousers with collar, cuffs and trousers’piping in regimental colour. Some brigades wore the piping also along the buttoning of the coat, up to the belt ‘s height. The double breast coat was closed by a double file of pewter buttons and wore “british” epaulettes of various colors for each kind of soldier: fusiliers- dark blue, grenadiers – red, cacciatore – green. The distinctive colours of the various brigades were.
BRIGADEREGIMENTSCOLORS
SAVOIA1st – 2ndScarlet (black collar)
PIEMONTE3rd - 4thScarlet
AOSTA5th - 6thScarlet
CUNEO7th - 8thCrimson
QUEEN9th - 10thWhite
CASALE11th - 12thYellow
PINEROLO13th - 14thScarlet (black collar)
SAVONA15th - 16thWhite
ACQUI17th - 18thYellow

The Brigades Savoia, Piemonte, Cuneo, Queen and Casale wore the piping along the buttoning of the coat.

The black shako wore the pom-pom in epaulette’s colors; the national cochade was sky-blue at start, then changed to tricolour one. The shako-plate and the chain that run along the shako were in gold metal. The accoutrements were in black leather; a waist belt brass plate with a silver cross overimposed. Sabre with brass hilt. The officers wore a silver band along the upper part of the shako and a silver pom-pom. The shako plate and the epaulettes were in gold. They wore a sky-blue scarf both across the breast from left to right or tied at the waist. All the other details like the common soldiers. Drummers wore the same uniform of the other soldiers, drums were brass with dark blue band and white cords.

Guards

Dark blue coat and trousers with red lapels and epaulettes (green epaulettes for the cacciatori). Overimposed on the collar and on the cuffs  a double white frog. The guard grenadiers wore a black bearskin in parade dress. On the bearskin top, a red cap with a white cross superimposed, red cords and a brass grenade on the bearskin front. The cacciatori wore an infantry shako instead, with a brass plate and a white and red plummet in parade dress. Black accoutrements but with white belts. The rest as the line infantry. Officers wore silver cords on the bearskin and the rest as the line officers.

Bersaglieri

Dark blue coat and trousers with crimson lapels. Crimson british epaulettes piped in crimson. Feathered hat with cochade as for the line and a golden plate. Along the breast run the power flask’s green cords. Black accoutrements and belts.

Cavalleria
Dark blue double-breast coat with collar, cuffs and pipings in regimental colours:

 
REGIMENTLAPELSPIPING
PIEMONTE REALEScarletScarlet
SAVOIABlack piped scarlet-
GENOVAYellowYellow
NOVARAWhiteWhite
AOSTAScarletScarlet
NIZZACrimsonCrimson


Grey trousers with lateral double bands in regimental colour. Metallic helmet with steel cap half covered by a black fur band with a silver cross overimposed frontally. Chin-straps, rosettes and crest in gold metal. A cochade under the left rosette. White epaulettes and belts; black accoutrements.  Dark blue saddle-cloth and valise with band and cipher in regimental colour. Overall a black sheepskin. Medium blue flag for the lance. Officers with silver epaulettes and sash as for the line officers.
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